Date of Transmission29–30 November 1993
Name of TapeC5/K 95
SourceMinistry of Information
Prosecution ExhibitP.36/5
Name of TranslatorMarie Vianney Uwamahoro
Date of Transcription28 April 2000
Duration60 Minutes
Original PDF

R.T.L.M. Tape 0142


Side A

  • Message addressed by Mburabuturo responsable de cellule, Jean Congolais, to all commune officials in Rwanda regarding their tremendous responsibilities, which are being ignored by their superiors as they cancelled their performance bonus.
  • Noel Hitimana interviewing two Burundian refugees about their problems and their desire to facilitate the living conditions of all Burundian refugees in Kigali.
  • Noel [Hitimana] speaking of a cancelled rally that was supposed to take place in Nyakizu commune.
  • He speaks of the rental of state-owned vehicles.
  • Announcements
  • Kantano speaks of an attack and of killings perpetrated by Inyenzi-Inkotanyi in Mutara commune.
  • Gustave Ngirumpatse is demanding that Joseph Kavaruganda be removed from his case so that the case may be re-examined by other judges.

Side B

  • Gustave [Ngirumpatse] continues to ask that someone else review his case. He is asking for the assistance of all officials so that Kavaruganda will make his file available to the other judges.
  • Inyenzi-Inkotanyi attack in Mutara commune
  • Gahigi comments on the peace negotiations and on the power sharing between the Rwandan government and the R.P.F.
  • International AIDS day
  • Criticism of the government’s failure to fight the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi.
  • The PRD denounces the killings committed by the Inyenzi in various communes and wishes to see the current government replaced, as it is not helping the people.

Side A

Noel Hitimana, Journalist for R.T.L.M.

[He coughs] and we could let it through. He said:

“Also, I would like to send a message to all the responsables de cellule in Rwanda. Fellow responsables de cellule throughout Rwanda, greetings. Do not lose hope. We have been short-changed by the decisions made by both Prime Ministers— the current one and the one for the future government, which will include the Inkotanyi, that is Agathe Uwilingiyimana and Faustin Twagiramangu. Thus, as expected they have decided to cancel our performance bonus. Our country is at war and is facing serious problems. We have thus had to endure very difficult times. Remember the night rounds when we had to train the people in our cellule in self-defense against the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi infiltration throughout Rwanda, we also had to monitor each intruder in our cellule closely to ensure the safety of all.

You know very well that the members of the cellule committees joined the population and the Inzirabwoba in the combat zones, i.e. Byumba and Ruhengeri, to stop our bloodthirsty enemy’s advance. To do this, cellule committee members asked the population to make sure they did not show the enemy the way, to hide the positions of the Inzirabwoba, to take the enemy by surprise and kill him bare-handed. When the Inyenzi catch a cellule committee member, they skin him alive. And you all know that we have been working day and night to resolve disagreements between people, reconciling them through the Gacaca, our tribunal. Moreover, we serve as messengers for nearly all the ministries, distributing summons, mail, notifications to attend to the various recipients. The type of message varies depending on the source Ministry. We also support the administration in its work tracking down criminals. We do all kinds of investigations and every government minister is aware of this. Alas, they do not care! They drag us into political parties. They pass us around like a ball on the soccer field. They play with us as if we were toys to make sure they keep the cake to themselves. We the members of the cellule committees are saddened by the fact that Bourgmestres throughout Rwanda are aware of the situation but say nothing even though they, better than anyone else, the work that we put in It is because of us that they receive good evaluations from their supervisors. Maybe they were afraid to intervene in our favor. Maybe our problem could head to the dismissal of some of them. This is quite understandable. Otherwise, a time will come when we will organize demonstrations to demand our dues. They are like a husband who stands by while his wife is being unfairly beaten. I wish to end by thanking those who supported us in our struggle for our encouragement bonus. There will be martyrs but we will not all die. The surviving ones will receive their bonus.”

Signed by the responsable of the cellule committee for Mburabuturo, Gikondo, and Kigali-ville.

[Musical interlude]

It is 11.09 a.m. here in our studios in Kigali. You are listening to your radio station, radio R.T.L.M. Well, some people come to the radio to try to frighten us [sigh], others to tell us their wishes, others to share ideas and others still to give us news. For example, someone has asked me to inform Makuba, an advisor at the Ministry of Agriculture, that he has injured him. So does this mean that we are going to spend all day treating the problems of the afflicted? But we have no other choice as people turn to radio whether they are sad or whether they are glad.

There are two young Burundians here; one is named Deogratias BUDOYI and the other Christophe Diallo BYAMUNGU and we will be speaking with them in a moment. But I can already share with you some of their grievances. A friend of R.T.L.M. says:

“Regarding MAKUBA, 150 of us sat for an exam for an agricultural project. Thirty-four of us made it through the first round and we thought that we would have to go through a so-called maturity test, so that two or three would be selected. Later we were told that during the transition period, the job would go to someone close to him a friend, a brother or a relative. MAKUBA does not take the test results into consideration. If things reach that level… then we have to take it is a joke.”

… It is 11:13 in our studio. This is your station Radio R.T.L.M. Let me repeat this death announcement. “They tortured him to death, they killed him. He was returning from a pacification campaign. He was searching for peace so that the Burundians in the communes under his authority could become reconciled. He was killed as he returned from his mission. People wonder ‘Who killed him?’ RUVUKA, the former governor, the man he replaced must have killed him. Brigade Commander MURENGERANTWALI may have killed him.” These are the officials who are suspected. This information comes from Kirundo. If MURENGERANTWALI did not kill him then it must have been Ruvuka. The announcement goes on to say that the administrator of Busoni commune, Salvator RWASA, who is also the UPRONA party chairman in Kirundo province, killed him [inaudible]. We have information [in our possession] regarding the investigation into the death of the governor. Enemies eliminated him as he was returning from the village where he was trying to restore peace. We have been told that his killers are either former governor RUVUKA, Brigade Commander MURENGERANTWALI or Busoni commune administrator, UPRONA party chairman in Kirundo province. That is all the information available to us at this time.

So Deogratias BUDOYI, 25, and Christophe BYAMUNGU, also 25, you have told me that you left Bujumbura on 20 October 1993 and came to Kigali. How are things going in Kigali? What do you need?

Speaker: Burundian Refugee (Unidentified) in Kigali

Well, things here in Kigali are going very badly. Despite the fact that the families who have taken us in treat us as brothers. These families have given us shelter but there are still problems because our arrival has only increased the number of people in the family. The other problems we have are food and how to deal with everyday things. We have one major problem. Let me give you an example, we have entered a country where we know none of the rules. For instance when you go for a walk and meet policemen, gendarmes, they stop you because they do not know you and you yourself do not know the working arrangement of the neighborhood. There is another problem that we have to face here in Kigali. We arrived as refugees but we have nothing to prove it. Even international organizations such as the UNHCR do not assist us. When we go to see them they refuse to meet with us. We are surprised to hear on the radio that refugees in Rwanda receive assistance. And we ask ourselves: “Why don’t we receive aid even though we are refugees just like the others.” We want to be treated like refugees. Some of us would even like to be sent to the refugee camps because this wandering around leaves us no hope for the future. But we don’t even know how to get to these camps. For us young refugees, we had a good life in Bujumbura. We need to go back to our country because we cannot wander around like this, even though only a small group of Tutsis chased us from our native country. We want to find a way to return to our native country.

Speaker: Noel HITIMANA

In just a few words you have highlighted your concerns. You are in limbo. You do not know the rules to follow and you have no identity papers… What you would like is to have identification papers so that you are not treated like common criminals here in Kigali. Of course, if a gendarme stops you and you have no [identification] papers to show him you cannot just say that you are a refugee. Isn’t that the crux of the problem?

  • That’s it.
  • That’s where the problem lies.
  • This question is addressed to your colleague: “How did the Burundians that you found here welcome you? What would you like these fellow Burundians to do for you? What type of assistance do you expect from Rwandans?
  • Well, as for me, this is the first time I leave my native country to go to a foreign country. The families that took us in were not our friends. When they realized that we were refugees, they took us in because we were in distress. As for the manner that they have cared for us, you see when you put two groups together something changes. Okay, you cannot really say that these people have millions to spare. I know that these people would take care of us even if they had nothing. They take care of us and we live just like the others.
  • Dear friends, you are listening to your radio station, radio R.T.L.M. It is now twenty minutes past eleven here in Kigali. Asking these two young men too many questions would exhaust them; it would exhaust them because they are already tired. They need assistance because they are in a bind here in Kigali. [He coughs]. It seems amazing for someone to bring a child into this world and then abandon it. This child becomes a street-child even though he or she has a mother and a father. But as the mother has abandoned the child, he or she becomes neglected. And now a refugee comes to Kigali and thinks: “If I weren’t 25 years old, I would prefer to be a street-child.” Maybe your little brothers are here. Maybe they are street-children… who helps them? You have said “We go to international organizations like UNHCR,” adding that they refuse to register you and that, my friends, is a problem. But, young men, let me ask you one last question. Now if you were enrolled in an army and taught weapons handling, would that make you happy?
  • Joining the army would be a good thing for me because it would allow me to return to my country. In fact, the Tutsis kicked us out of our country because there are no Hutu soldiers. That is why they are killing us, and have done so since the dawn of time Hutus have always been killed by Tutsis because there are no Hutu soldiers. So if I can find a way to join an army, to learn military tactics, to master them, I could find a way to join with other Burundian refugees, this could be even more useful because eventually we could return to our native country.

Speaker: Noel HITIMANA

Friends, you are listening to R.T.L.M., your radio station. Let’s be honest, all these young Burundians need is strength to eat, to be able to think. The strength to be self-sufficient, the strength to know how to handle weapons to make their own plans.

… had left for a rally in Nyakizu commune. When this woman arrived many problems arose because the people were not particularly keen to attend the rally even though it was held in Butare, which is her home area When Sylvestre KALISA, M.D.R. member, thus a member of her party noticed the people’s lack of eagerness, he took the Radio Rwanda [Mercedes] Benz press vehicle and went to meet with people as they returned from mass to speak to them about the rally and to urge them to attend. You have to understand that the people refused… so the rally that she held had a very low turnout. After that, she was dissatisfied and went to the refugee camp, and gave a speech. The speech was broadcast on the radio. So you understand that she changed her approach. The speech that was broadcast on the radio was the one she had prepared for the refugee camp. It wasn’t the one she had prepared for the previously planned rally and that she had meant to give in front of the people of Nyakizu. That was the speech she was meant to give. But you are all aware of what happened when Minister GASANA used one of the state-owned vehicles in Gikomero. That was a serious matter. So this ORINFOR vehicle, this [Mercedes] Benz which is used as a sound-system for reporting has to be paid for when it is used here in Kigali, even when used by the Prime Minister’s office, or by a private party. It costs 64,000 francs when it is used in Kigali. And when it travels outside Kigali-ville prefecture (PVK) it can cost as much as 100,000 francs. So if ORINFOR collected, there is no problem, otherwise… you cannot proceed otherwise.

It is twelve p.m. here in Kigali. We will now say good bye. But before we leave, we would like to share with you the following announcements: “The president of the Kinigi commune development association, ACODEKI, invites all the members of the association to a general assembly to be held on Saturday 4 December 1993, at 9 o’clock in the morning, at Kiyovu hotel. On the agenda will be as follows: information regarding the association’s account number, adoption of the association’s rule of procedure, project for the creation of a secondary school, evaluation of the Association’s activities in Kinigi commune.” … N.B.: Kinigi commune is asked to send a representative to the meeting (in French in the Kinyarwanda text).

[Announcement in Kinyarwanda] Dear friends, you are listening to your radio station, radio R.T.L.M. In nine minutes it will be exactly twelve o’clock. Good-bye to all of you. Bon Appétit to those of you who are eating. To those of you who are listening to us at work, bon service. To those of you who are listening to us at home, have a great day. You have been listening to Noel HITIMANA from…

Speaker: Kantano HABIMANA, Journalist for R.T.L.M.

It is 8:15 a.m., good morning to all our R.T.L.M. listeners. This is Katano HABIMANA; I will be with you until twelve. This is R.T.L.M., your radio station. We bring you the latest news without overwhelming you, real news, and ideas to help build our country. R.T.L.M. radio broadcasts your messages. R.T.L.M. makes you dance to the beat to dispel any unhappiness in your heart. … Breaking news. Under cover of darkness, the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi once again launched an attack against Mutara commune in Gisenyi. This shows, continues to show that it is not an easy task to sign agreements with the rebels, the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi. At 8.30 a.m. I will bring you all the details of the attack. And now, here is some music.

… You are listening to radio R.T.L.M. broadcasting from Kigali. It is 8.31 a.m. in our studios and the news is read to you by Katano HABIMANA. We continue to receive disturbing news reports from Mutara commune, Gisenyi prefecture. According to the latest reports, the attack started at 11 p.m. and continued until dawn. Earlier, I spoke with the Bourgmestre of Mutara commune; he told me that they had found the bodies of 15 innocent victims. And… some people say that there are many Inkotanyi in the highland forest. The Rwandan armed forces are facing them as we speak. Even thought there might not have been any shooting they are watching them. According to the latest reports we have received from Kinigi, yesterday people saw with their very own eyes many Inkotanyi with guns and light backpacks as they started to leave. The Inkotanyi took the road to Bisata, at the edge of the forest… into an inhabited area; they were in military uniform. They entered Mukingo commune forest, on the border of Kinigi commune. The people saw all that. They thought that they might attack Mukingo and Nkuli communes the following day. However, in the absence of the authorities, the people were unable to find out more about that. You can all see that the Inkotanyi are blatantly violating the agreements that they reached with Rwanda and with the full knowledge of U.N. forces. So what does DALLAIRE have to say about that this time? Is he still doubtful about the Inkotanyi’s bad faith?

As you all know, on the 17th— I am sure you all remember— the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi launched attacks against the people of the communes of Kidaho, Nkumba, Cyeru, Nyamugali. They slaughtered the people like lambs; only forty bodies were discovered. Today again, just this past night, they attacked Mutara commune in Gisenyi; some believe that they are seeking to revenge the Bagogwe. Let me remind you that LIZINDE, the Inkotanyi, is a native of Mutara region. This brings us to the end of the news I prepared for you. We are working on other news stories for you. But in the meantime, we continue to receive many more reports from Gisenyi. The people of Gisenyi town continue with their daily lives; some people stay at home saying that there is nothing they can do as it’s the war. Another thing still causes concern and that is that the Mudende University still hasn’t opened its doors and we don’t know why. We believe that it is linked to the Inkotanyi attack. We will continue to follow the situation closely and above all we must remain vigilant because these are warning signs.

R.T.L.M. broadcasting from Kigali. It is 9:06 a.m. in our studios. We continue to receive reports regarding the attack launched by the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi at the Mutabwa trading centre in Gisenyi, Mutara commune. Last night, using the volcano forest as their cover, they came down and killed part of the innocent population. So far, thirteen bodies have been found and they continue to search the forest as other bodies were dragged in there. They are the bodies of the people from Mutara commune. Up until now no bodies of Inkotanyi or Rwandan soldiers’ have been discovered.

I believe that those who are counting on the Broad-Based Transitional Government, which includes the Inkotanyi, for their survival are also worried and at a loss. On the 17th, when the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi massacred the people of Kidaho, Nkumba, Cyeru and Nyamugali, slaughtering over forty people like cattle, Minister GASANA stated: “That is how the M.R.N.D. sabotage the elections.” Is that what happened in Mutara, Gisenyi? I prefer to quote Agathe UWIRINGIYIMANA, Prime Minister [of] the Interim Government, who said the following: “What happened in Kirambo is just one incident among many others. Many others will follow.” (In French in the Kinyarwanda text). It is almost as if she knew something about it. If they really know something about it, they should explain why the Inyenzi are attacking after signing of the Arusha Accords and after the gradual deployment of U.N.-forces.

Our learned friend, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU always claims that as far as he is concerned, those who are against the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi are against the setting-up of his government. And who really opposes it? Let me remind you that LIZINDE, the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi, is a native of Rwerere commune, [and that] BISERUKA, the Inkotanyi, is from the surrounding areas. It seems that Kanyarengwe told them: “In Ruhengeri, where I come from, I have shown them who I am. In Kirambo, Kidaho, Nyamugali… rather in Kirambo, [and] Nyamugali, I have shown them what type of person I am. In Cyeru, Kidaho [and] Nkumba I massacred my people and, you, what have you done?” And to show that they have influence in their areas, they have organized killings. If that is the case, then like BIKINDI, I hate the Hutus.


… We continue to receive reports from Gisenyi. Under the cover of the night, Inyenzi-Inkotanyi came down from the volcano forest and attacked Kabatwa at the trading centre and massacred innocent people. At this stage, fourteen bodies have been found and the search continues for the bodies of other dead persons that the Inkotanyi allegedly hid. Of course the Rwandan armed forces have been deployed on the ground. There are many Inkotanyi in the high forest. The people of Kinigi saw them go by. In any case, there were over one thousand of them. The war could break out any minute. Breaking news from Mutara will be broadcast in a few moments. I have just spoken with the Mutara Bourgmestre and he promised he would call me and inform me of the situation… I will try to speak with the survivors. Stay tuned for further developments.

In other news this morning, one Gustave NGIRUMPATSE from Cyangugu was tried many times and sentenced to death but was not executed. Earlier today, he and his family were at the door of the Appeals Court; they are still there. They are even thinking of setting up camp and staying there until president KAVARUGANDA withdraws from NGIRUMPATSE’s case. He has just arrived here… he is going to tell us… what is really happening with his case,

Speaker: Gustave NGIRUMPATSE, Cyangugu trader

Well, thank you for giving me the opportunity to speak on R.T.L.M., our radio. This allows me to what I have suffered because of KAVARUGANDA, as well as my wishes. People of Rwanda, I have shown you in several newspapers the unfair treatment that I have received from Joseph KAVARUGANDA. I even received authorization to expose my problem to him on 17 November 1993. Informed of my imminent arrival, KAVARUGANDA closed the doors of the Court, making sure that he left with all his advisors. To this date, he has not returned to the said court. The suffering I have endured, my death sentence, and the killings ordered by Joseph KAVARUGANDA in my trial have caused a great deal of grief. There were nine of us and he had eight of us killed; I am the only survivor. He based his [findings] on unreliable evidence that they had fabricated his and SETH BIMENYIMANA’s wife. By sitting on my trial, although he had previously been a member of the Prosecution, KAVARUGANA knowingly violated articles 77, sub-paragraph 8, and 78 of the law of 24 August 1962, as well article 89, sub-paragraph 7 of the decree-law of 7 July 1980 on the organization and judicial jurisdiction code. I will provide you with all the prosecution evidence in the newspaper that will soon be published. Moreover, articles 254, sub-paragraph 1 and 2, 257 and 259 of the Civil and Commercial Procedural code stipulate that a judge shall withdraw from any case in which he participated as a member of the prosecution. KAVARUGANDA must thus withdraw from my case … [Interruption]

End of Side A

Side B

Speaker: Gustave NGIRUMPATSE

… on 5 May, 18 May and 8 June 1993. In view of the suffering he has caused us, we ask all competent authorities— the President, all the cabinet Ministers… Parliament— we are asking them today, day of our second arrival at the Appeals Court, to come to the appeals Court without delay and to order or ask Mr. KAVARUGANDA to hand over all files, i.e. R.A 300 935/1303/93 as well the motion on miscarriage of justice filed against him on 6 July 1993. He handled the files even though the law forbids him to do so. I ask that as soon as they arrive, they order him to hand over these files to the Vice-President of the Court so that he can set a hearing date. I also ask that we be informed of the hearing date as well as that of the decision according to due process. I was sentenced to death 17 years ago and the Office of the Prosecutor to the court of appeals has requested that my file be reviewed as of 3 May 1993. Moreover, Mr. KAVARUGANDA has blocked all the files despite the provisions of Article 259 of the Code of Civil Procedure. I am now asking those who render justice to the oppressed to hurry up and join us here at the Court of Appeals to examine my file and render an appropriate decision.

Speaker: Kantano HABIMANA

But… Gustave… KAVARUGANDA must be afraid of something that is contained in the file. What is it?

  • KAVARUGANDA is afraid because my files show that he is the one who took the treacherous decision to send me to prison and that I have discovered in his brief…
  • No, go ahead.
  • …dated August 78. Uh…
  • When KAVARUGANDA was the only Prosecutor in the country, he asked Deputy Prosecutor MUTABAZI to prepare the file. MUTABAZI informed him of my arbitrary imprisonment, but he did not take it into account. After his brief was discovered, we saw that I was imprisoned only based on suspicions and that KAVARUGANDA was in league with Seth BIMENYIMANA’s wife. Moreover, he had agreed with the women to accuse me of accompanying Seth BIMENYIMANA to the Cyangugu bank to withdraw eight million francs on 27 July 1976. And now, it has been noticed that Mr. KAVURAGANDA sat in on my trial over three times both as judge and as a member of the prosecution. I was ordered to pay forty two million francs based on the eight million that had been completely fabricated. Based on Seth BIMENYIMANA’s bank statements, which he had opened at the BCR, we discovered a document showing that on the 27th he was already dead. Ashamed of the betrayal that he shares with this woman, he does not dare hand the file over in fear of being discovered by the other judges. The atrocities he committed based on untruthful allegations cost eight people their lives, as well as my death sentence and the confiscation of all my belongings valued at some thirty seven million. Worse still, KAVARUGANDA has been behaving like a despot for a long time He has been exposed. I wrote him several letters. I did everything I could to show him
  • Don’t I think?
  • Will you give me what I deserve or will someone else?
  • Me?
  • He…!
  • It’s the others, when you speak, aren’t you speaking to everyone?
  • He…!
  • You would be surprised!
  • But you don’t tell me what bothers you have, you talk for the sake of talking?
  • What bothers me?
  • Yes… what for example…?
  • You know quite well, there is no point in rambling on.
  • He…!
  • And that’s it.
  • That’s it?
  • What?
  • Is that all you have to say?
  • Yes that’s all I have to say. Are you going to hang up? Yes.
  • Huh?
  • That’s it, nothing else, correct yourself and speak politely [inaudible]and yet you have been known to be polite. I do not know why you act without thinking.
  • Yeah, look who’s talking?
  • Earn your bread properly and don’t insult people.
  • Does this mean I should not speak about the Inyenzi?
  • The Inyenzi?
  • Uh huh…!
  • Don’t you know where the Inyenzi are?
  • He…!
  • And you, who are you? Aren’t you an Inyenzi?
  • Who? You.
  • He…!
  • Those who give you money.
  • He…! Good bye.

Speaker: Kantano HABIMANA

Good bye to you, Inyenzi.

… In Gisenyi Prefecture, Mutara commune… I was just saying a minute ago that fifteen bodies were discovered following Inyenzi-Inkotanyi atrocities. We have just received news that the body count has reached eighteen, seven people are missing and one person is injured. In a few words that is the latest update. Inyenzi-Inkotanyi attacked Mutara commune from the volcano forest. They went one kilometer deep into the inhabited areas and killed eighteen innocent peasants. They abducted seven persons and injured one other.

We have received information from Ruhengeri about an Inyenzi attack on Kinigi commune but we do not yet know the number of casualties. This information is shocking at a time when the Rwandan government and the Inkotanyi have just signed a peace agreement and international interposition forces have arrived. It is becoming clearer every day that it will be difficult for Rwandans and Inkotanyi to live together. Earlier you heard an Inkotanyi woman who telephoned to insult me. You heard how she warned me, but I cannot stand the atrocities committed by the Inkotanyi. They are people like everyone else. We know that most of them are Tutsi and that not all Tutsis are bad. And yet, the latter rather than help us condemn them, support them. But I believe that in the end they will be discovered and they will be punished accordingly. Stay tuned to R.T.L.M. In a short moment we will sign off and meet again at 6 p.m.

Speaker: Gaspard GAHIGI, Editor in chief of R.T.L.M.

It is twenty minutes past eight and you are listening to R.T.L.M. It is Wednesday, 1 December 1993. We don’t have much to say today because we are mourning our brothers in Mutara commune, innocent peasants who were massacred by the Inkotanyi for no reason. We are in mourning because in Ngenda commune, in Bugesera, twelve people were killed by soldiers from Burundi and others were kidnapped and burned. You heard it on Radio Rwanda, as announced by news-anchor NUBAHUMPATSE. We are sad but we say that Rwanda is like a bird whose nest is at a crossroads and wonders: “What will happen to me? Shall I live or shall I die? I do not know.” Indeed according to the information we have received from Switzerland, the extremist Tutsi group in Burundi gathered with the Inkotanyi in Switzerland. We have seen the outcome of this meeting. The events in Mutara and in Ngenda are all part of a same plan. The goal is thus clear. Things are not easy and we at radio R.T.L.M. are in mourning.

We will speak on another subject; you all know that December 1st has been declared World AIDS Day. We will also speak about it. We will start our program with old Kaharanyuze songs. We say that R.T.L.M. radio is for the young, but old-timers also like RLTM. Thus we remind them of the good old days by playing kirikiri dance music. Our technician will go back through time and play them another song and then it will be the turn of the young people.

I was just saying that Rwanda is like a bird nesting at a crossroad wondering: “What will happen to me? Shall I live or shall I die? I do not know.” You know perfectly well that when the Inkotanyi attacked, they were aiming for power and we denounced this repeatedly, but some people still will not believe it Inkotanyi is an organization of refugees who left in 1959 and others even followed after that But it is mainly an ethnic organization. You know that these Inkotanyi fought the country in an attempt to gain power but in vain, until the Arusha Accords were signed. Thus, people thought that things were going to go back to normal but recent events in Ruhengeri and Byumba communes have shown that these agreements are not respected. We have also denounced the behind the scenes games that characterized these accords, but people did not take this into consideration. They are the ones who say: “We must include the name of the future Prime Minister in the accords.” As if one person’s name is really important in concluding an international agreement. And now you see the problems that stem from that.

Inside the country, aside from the problems with the Inkotanyi, we see that there is also a struggle for power. There is an opposition. If we analyze the situation correctly, we see that this struggle is a result of a self-centered policy. No one can convince me that the open dissension within the M.D.R., between TWAGIRAMUNGU and KARAMIRA, is for a policy for the good of the people. On the contrary, I believe that it is only based on self-interest. No one can convince me that the conflict between MUGENZI and LANDO within the P.L. is for the good of the people. I will call a spade a spade and say that this is based on self-interest; they are jockeying for position. We said that there was dissension within the M.D.R.; yesterday we heard that NSENGIYAREMYE is back. That they had patched things up in Dar-Es-Salaam. Is this a reconciliation of the people or a reconciliation between individuals? We have even received information that NSENGIYAREMYE is after the Minafet [Ministry of Foreign Affairs] post; thus this will lead to reconciliation. So if that’s what reconciliation means, if that is politics, I don’t know what to say. I can only say to all Rwandans that if we had real politicians, then they should be drafting a policy for development and not to fill their own stomachs. They shouldn’t eat and sleep as if the people were comfortable. A development policy should be set up for the country. I specifically ask our listeners, especially those in Bugesera and everywhere else to make sure they do not fall into the enemy’s trap. On the contrary, I believe that the population should lay a trap to these authorities that are only interested in filling their own stomachs so that they will be caught. In that manner, we will show them that they follow a self-centered policy. We will show them that we strive for the country’s development. We believe we should set a trap to the authorities so that they will continue to flaunt their own-self interest policy. As for us the people, we must be very careful that we do not fall into the trap because there are many people who seek to take advantage of the situation.

[Musical interlude]

I mentioned earlier that December 1st is World AIDS Day. AIDS is calamity that threatens humanity. According to WHO figures between two and two and half million people have AIDS. I am talking about the ones who are sick. But there are also fourteen million HIV positive individuals whose symptoms have not yet appeared. Thus, the problem is very tricky. It is very tricky because there is no treatment for AIDS. There is no immunization. People say that fifteen vaccines are being tested throughout the world, even in Africa. You have heard that Rwanda had been chosen as a vaccine test site, but this is still pending. So this is a calamity which threatens the world. The worst part about this problem is that AIDS touches an area --I don’t know if it should be called a good or bad area I don’t even know if we should joke about such a subject. But someone once told me the following joke: “One day a bull smells a cow’s genitals and cried out thank you God for creating things that we are ashamed of and yet we all love.” The problem is that AIDS touches an area that everyone loves, even though people don’t love it in the same manner, even if people do not show their love in the same manner. But everyone loves it. And God created it for procreation. And the situation is frightening. People say: “If God had at least put AIDS in beans or in banana wine or in beer or even milk, people could stay away from them.” So they see that it is in a place that does not leave them indifferent. The problem is complicated because these fourteen million HIV positive individuals and two or two and a half million people who are sick are still sexually active. This means that they still need to make love. So we see that AIDS continues to spread. It spreads every day throughout the world. And the problem remains, people use condoms but experts say that condoms do not protect people from AIDS 100%. One out of every hundred times, people can catch AIDS even when they are wearing condoms. So this is a very delicate problem that threatens humanity. We will return to this issue in a moment. Continue to listen to the song in which the singer says: “AIDS is a calamity for humanity, let us just pray to God.”


December 1st is World AIDS Day. AIDS is transmitted through blood transfusions, shots and sexual intercourse. But little by little, the modes of transmission are being reduced because the blood that patients receive is now well tested. As for syringes, you know that single-use syringes have now been invented. This means that the transmission of AIDS by blood transfusion or through a syringe has now been drastically reduced. Basically AIDS is transmitted through sexual intercourse. AIDS is thus a calamity with no possible treatment or immunization. The solution that we can suggest is to avoid casual intercourse, by this I mean sexual intercourse with just anybody. And if this becomes necessary, because as I said this is how man was created, and God created him that way, you must use condoms. There is no other treatment; that is the nature of AIDS; it is a calamity against all of humanity.

I have told you that we, at R.T.L.M., are in mourning because of the death of innocent peasants who were slaughtered like lambs in Mutara commune, slaughtered like lambs in Ngenda commune. This brings to mind other innocent peasants who were killed in Nkumba, Cyeru, Kidaho, Nyamugali and others still who were killed in Bwisige commune in Byumba. These events sadden us here at R.T.L.M. but we do not know what to do. But we still ask ourselves why. Each time people die, we learn that the Cabinet meets but the decisions that are taken lead me to wonder if we really have a government. If there are differences within the government regarding issues such as those, I believe that we should have a unanimous position so that the population will not be exterminated and appropriate measures should be taken. Indeed, regarding for example the peasants who died in Ngenda commune, I have heard of no appropriate measures taken by the government, none. I do not know if I have an old man’s hearing, but I have not heard of any clear measure taken to address such an important issue. We see that when it comes to politics, the main concern, a government’s first priority should be to protect the population, to guarantee peace and insure development. If people are massacred in such a manner and the Cabinet meets and only condemns, and some times, not even to condemn, because I never heard of any condemnation of what happened in NGENDA commune, I believe that that is quite deplorable. This brings me to wonder if this country still has a government, if there is still anyone who is responsible. As far as I am concerned, if the government continues to behave in such a manner, the population will be decimated. Thus, I will personally ask the President to take responsibility, to know when the government does nothing as a head of State, he must react. I believe that this is a very important issue because allowing people to continue to die only because there are differences of opinion within the government without the government taking action, one gets the impression that the government has no authority or no power. Thus, people cannot just react any way they want… there must be a change of power. I believe that if the situation continues as such, the President should assume his responsibilities.

We believe that the government has shown that it is incapable, that it does not wield any power while the people are dying and that he hasn’t taken any concrete measure. This isn’t just a statement of facts by a single person. I am looking at an announcement the legal texts he had violated, but in his answer he informs me that the decision is final and that no judge can go against him and that I am free to file claims anywhere I please. Therefore I did what I could; I appealed to all authorities. I explained the situation at length on 10 November on the radio and in newspapers such as “Umurava Magazine” and in the newspaper…

Okay… you have come here to the Court of Appeals with your whole family, when do you plan on leaving?

I believe I will leave after the file has been handed over to competent judges, i.e. when he will no longer be in charge of the case. I will remain here. Please continue to help me so that all the authorities that defend the oppressed will be able to come to my assistance and free me. That said, authorities will convince KAVARUGANDA to hand over said file so that the Court can examine my case. I am not looking for anything else. And if he loses his case, then he should be sentenced by law and receive an exemplary sentence. But I will not give up because of this game of hide and seek nor will it prevent me from pursuing him for all the prejudice he has caused me.

We are not used to this music [sigh]. They are really childish. When the situation is bad no one dances… when things… get complicated, like they are now, no one dances. People only listen to the recent news that is not overwhelming. The latest news that we continue to receive deals with the atrocities committed once again by the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi in Mutara commune, Gisenyi prefecture. We are still working on other news stories gathering reports and in a few minutes I will sum them up. We are still waiting for reports from Gisenyi. Last night, Inyenzi-Inkotanyi committed atrocities and killed people. We have just counted fifteen bodies. The search continues for the other bodies hidden by the Inyenzi-Inkotanyi. In a few moments, I will update you on the situation. But at this very moment here in our studios, I have just caught an Inkotanyi … in a few minutes I will share the interview with you In the meantime, before we listen to this Inkotanyi. And why she does not want R.T.L.M. to discover their machinations, I would like to share with you these messages [zither music, interruption)…Each time I speak of Inkotanyi business, she insults me. Unfortunately, I was unable to catch her physically before… but maybe someone will recognize her voice. Listen to her carefully as she repeats each time that… the Inkotanyi will make me suffer for denouncing their malicious acts or their schemes. Inkotanyi I am not at all afraid of you, even if I should die, you will not ascend to heaven alive. You are not Jesus or the Virgin Mary. And may your companions take note!

Speaker: Unidentified

[Inaudible] … to get on our nerves and cause us pain.

  • Huh…!
  • To get on our nerves.
  • He…!
  • He…!
  • How do you want me to express myself?
  • How should you express yourself?
  • He…!
  • He. How should you express yourself? Shouldn’t a man like you know what he should say?
  • Regarding what!
  • Regarding what?
  • Huh…!
  • Huh… so when you say something, say it politely. Do the things I say bother you?
  • Me?
  • Uh…!
  • Huh… you know what you have said, you should know what you should correct; otherwise you will reap what you have sown.
  • He…!
  • That’s it? Nothing else?
  • Who sent you?
  • What?
  • Who sent you?
  • Am I incapable of reasoning?
  • What?

Speaker: Gaspard GAHIGI

…from the Parti du Renouveau Démocratique [Party for the renewal of democracy]. The party states the following: “We condemn the killings in Mutara commune in Gisenyi.

The Parti du Renouveau Démocratique, PRD, condemns the killings committed in Mutara commune, Gisenyi, during the night of 29 November 1993.” The PRD party notes that in light of the massacres that were committed in the communes of Kirambo sous-prefecture, to and the events in Mutara commune, the perpetrators’ goal is to prevent the implementation of the Arusha accords. The PRD party asks Rwandan national forces to do their utmost to ensure the safety of the Rwandan population especially in the regions where the atrocities were committed. As the government in place has shown it is not ready, that it is not concerned with the people’s interest, the PRD feels that it should be dissolved. It should leave the floor to a government capable of facing all the problems that Rwanda is facing, especially the safety of the population while waiting for the establishment of the Broad Based Transitional Government.” The chairman of the PRD, Parti du Renouveau Démocratique, Alexis NSABIMANA and the Vice-Chairman, Aster NTIBABARIRA, signed this announcement asking for the dissolution of the government, because it shows that they were not concerned with the interest of the people today. They say: “It must be dissolved so that another government can be established to tackle all the problems, especially as regards the safety of the Rwandan people those dealing with Rwandan’s safety while we are waiting for the transitional government to be set up.”

We have other death announcements… Gustave MPATSE, you are aware of his case. He is the Cyangugu trader who had problems with Joseph KAVARUGANDA, President of the Appeals Court. The latter had him imprisoned and later sentenced him unjustly to death. So now, Mr. NGIRUMPATSE is at the Appeals Court with his family of some fifty people. They say: “We shall not leave until Mr. ICAVARUGANDA hands over the file we have asked for.” So these people are there now and Mr. KAVARUGANDA is also there but in his office protected by a gendarme. We have also received news from the University of Butare that the professors have stopped their classes. I am sure you are wondering why. They stopped teaching their classes because there is a problem with housing. It seems that housing is normally allocated based on seniority but now it is allegedly being allocated whimsically. This issue was raised with the Minister. But as he has not answered, they have decided to stop lecturing. Now there is disorder at the University of Butare, there are no classes.


… You are listening to R.T.L.M., your radio station. It is now 10.45 a.m. in our studios. I have just spoken with a member of the M.D.R. and he said: “Mr. GAHIGI, you and those who listen to R.T.L.M., I get the feeling that you do not understand the Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU issue. This is the problem. It is true that this man was party chairman. But he had been placed in that post by party representatives at all levels. He was elected party chairman. When it was noted that his style was incompatible with the party’s goals, he was removed from the post. Not only was he removed from his post but he was also expelled from the party but it was noted that he was persevering in his approach.” He also added: “I do not know why people continue to ask questions about this man. He had been given the chairmanship of the party, those who had given it to him withdrew it and as a result of his actions he was expelled from the party. I do not know if people understand the problem. You heard that he went to Kenya to meet with NSENGIYAREMYE. How can you speak of reconciliation with NSENGIYAREMYE, when TWAGIRAMUNGU is no longer the representative of the party and NSENGIYAREMYE isn’t either, how can they become reconciled when TWAGIRAMUNGU has problems with the M.D.R. party.” We journalists, especially myself, I ask myself a question that I cannot answer. I do not understand why my fellow journalists, who had the opportunity to meet with them, did not ask that question. Do you know the results of this reconciliation? Was it achieved? NSENGIYAREMYE allegedly mentioned what he had run away from. Those are the questions that I ask myself.

End of Side B