Kangura No. 4

Zaïre: Why Is There a Problem Identifying Nationals in North and South Kivu?

Mugisha Mugabo

Since 31 May 1991, the operation to identify nationals started in North and South Kivu, in Eastern Zaïre. The operation seeks to identify nationals, meaning the authentic natives or incontestable citizens of the aforementioned regions of Zaïre.

Nevertheless, to our great amazement, we see agitation here and there by people who are not concerned, but who are fomenting trouble for the sole purpose of undermining the peace that we gained, at great cost.

As proof, we refer the reader to an article in the Inkotanyi newspaper “Le Volcan” of 15 June 1991, titled, “Let us avoid bloodshed in North and South Kivu.” The article is signed by Cesar MURASANDONYI, a Rwandan Tutsi refugee holding a fraudulently obtained Zaïrean identity card.

One Pay Pay GATAMBIYE, also holding a fraudulently acquired Zaïrean identity card, fomented the aggressive demonstration by the unemployed in Goma.

Those two individuals are on the editorial staff of LE VOLCAN and indulge in fomenting trouble to block the identification of nationals and Zaïrean tribesmen. Likewise, by their barbaric media attacks, against Rwanda, they doubtlessly constitute the radical wing of the R.P.F.— Inyenzi-Inkotanyi.

In its 15 to 20 July 1991 issue, the JUA newspaper talks about threats of an ethnic war in an article by LUBUNGA BYAOMBE. The author states that the Banyarwanda together constitute an important political force.

Is it possible for the Banyarwanda, to whom the Zaïrean State granted political asylum by settling them in Bibwe and Ishula in the regions of MASISI and WALIKALE, to oblige the sons and daughters of Zaïre to recognize them as Zaïrean nationals, whereas they are recognized by the HCR as refugees?

However, Law no 81-002 of 29 June 1981 governing nationality stipulates the procedure for naturalization as a Zaïrean.

Those Tutsi refugees from Rwanda who were settled in Zaïre and recognized by the UNHCR are trying to associate Hutu immigrants who were brought in between 1930 and 1957 by the Belgian colonial power, in their false claims.

Their aim is to prove that they constitute a majority in North-Kivu, in general, and in Masisi, in particular, whereas this is not the case. That is how a new, pedestrian ethnic grouping, the Munyarwanda, came into being in order to swell their ranks.

But this is a farce and an attempt to sow confusion, as the Munyarwanda ethnic group never existed, nor will it ever exist. We know that in Rwanda there are three basically distinct ethnic groups from which the name BANYARWANDA was derived: the Hutu Bantus, the Tutsi Hamites and Twa pygmies. These are the three ethnic entities that the Tutsi refugees want to merge into one, the “MUNYARWANDA” ethnic group. Those Rwandan ethnic groups are quite distinct from one another and more complex than the 400 Zaïrean tribes, which are all part of the Bantu group.

The Hutu immigrants are entitled to Zaïrean nationality, as the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi were under the Belgian Colonial Power, which had a right to move the population within the territory under its mandate, as it deemed fit. Furthermore, between 1930 and 1957, Congolese, Rwandan and Burundian nationalities did not exist. We were subjects of the Belgian Kingdom.

Referring to history, we note in the migratory movements from the 10th to 14th century, the presence of the Bahutu, Banyanga, Banande, Bahunde, Bashi, Warega… in the Congo (Encyclopedia of the Belgian Congo and the Kingdom of Rwanda Urundi. Volume I, page 99).

The Tutsis were not present then and were also not here when the Colonizers arrived [Ethnographic map of the Belgian Congo and Rwanda Urundi; Encyclopedia of the Belgian Congo and Rwanda-Urundi. Volume I, page 103].

Thus, from 1885 to 1951, the present administrative zones of Rutshuru, Nyiragongo, Kalisimbi and Goma constituted what was termed “Bahutu Territories” under Belgian colonization.

In Rutshuru you had Hutu Traditional Chiefs recognized by the colonial power; the most prominent were;

  • Daniel RUGABO NDEZE II settled in 1919 in Gasigari and recognized by the entire population of Bwisha as their paramount traditional Chief in 1920.
  • Paul BAHIZI in Busanza
  • KATSHUKI in Jomba
  • NTAMUHANGA in Gasigari
  • SERUGARI in Bweza
  • BINEGURO in Bukoma
  • BIKAMIRO in Binza

Since Bwite was a Hutu chiefdom, (a territory merged with Rutshuru in 1920), …it was separated from the Bwisha chiefdom in 1970, by subjects who were jealous of the political and administrative successes of Mwami Ndeze RUGABO II, son of Jean MBURANO, native of Mushoro, Gisigari grouping in Bwisha.

The illustrious Mwami Daniel NDEZE RUGABO II was born in 1885, and died on 31 March 1981, after reigning with unprecedented success for 60 years.

The subjects of those traditional rulers are called the “ABAKONDE,” meaning, the owners of the land.

Any other person who came afterwards was called “UMUKEBERWA” (immigrant). This was the case of the ABAGOGWE Tutsis of the ABAHA clan among whom we can cite the following families; Munyazesa, Ryamukuru, Munyashara, Rwamahima, Rutwaza, Nteziryayo, Munyarugendo, Mishiguri, to cite only some of the 1919 ones.

Those families did not exceed twenty in number. In 1981, a census of those Tutsis in Rutshuru, including the Hutu natives, gave the following figures: 961 men, 787 women, 1,219 boys and 1,216 girls (total 4,183 inhabitants).

In North-Kivu, another category of inhabitants can be noted, namely, the immigrants. This concept originated from 1930 to 1957, when the Belgian colonial power organized an immigration mission for Banyarwanda (MIB). The decision of the colonial authority to move the Bahutu of Rwanda-Urundi to Kivu Province was designed to procure a sufficient labor force to work in agro-pastoral entities.

Upon their arrival in the offices of the MIB, today the Goma municipal building, the colonial administration tore the identity cards held by the indigenes of Ruanda-Urundi and replaced them with Congolese particulars. And the King of Belgium granted Mwami André KALINDA of Masisi the customary right to obtain land on which those immigrants would settle. On 30 June 1960, those immigrants were recognized as Congolese without further ado and the proof is that they participated in the Round Table Conference in Brussels to lay the ground for Congo’s accession to international sovereignty.

Those immigrants toiled for the development of the country as full-fledged citizens and with no links to Rwanda-Urundi until 1972.

By that date, Mr. Barthélemy BISENGIMANA alias Rwenia [Director of Cabinet in the President’s Office] drafted an Ordinance governing nationality and got it signed by the President of the Republic. And it is from then that tension has prevailed in the regions of North and South Kivu due to the issue of Nationality, which was a simple diabolical ploy by the Tutsi refugees who settled in Zaïre after 1969.

We shall mention a few such refugees, who have orchestrated and continue to orchestrate sordid maneuvers around the North and South Kivu regions.

  1. Barthélemy BISENGIMANA, alias Rwema, a Tutsi refugee and a former student of Lovanium University. He is a native of Cyangugu prefecture in Rwanda.
  2. Médard GAHIGA, alias Zombi, former student in Belgium (Veterinary Medicine). He is a native of Kivuru secteur, Kigembe commune, Butare prefecture. He sucked the blood of Zaïreans until he became a multi-billionaire in dollars.
  3. Miko RWAYITARE: Boss of TELECEL who became rich through SOZACOM, where he was a Director for a long time under the impulsion of Mr. BISENGIMANA, alias “BB” to close Tutsi friends. He holds a fraudulently acquired Zaïrean identity card.
  4. Etienne KAYITANKORE: native of Gikongoro prefecture (Rwanda). He is Administrateur Délégué General of CIZA (Cement works in Zaïre).
  5. GAHUNGA: Délégué Général Adjoint in Zaïre SEP. He is a native of Kibungo prefecture (Rwanda).
  6. Janvier GITERA; UNDP Representative in Zaïre. He is the highest placed Zaïrean or Zaïrwan senior staff in that institution. He is a Tutsi refugee and a native of Kibungo. He holds a fraudulently acquired Zaïrean identity card.
  7. Pascal Bahenda MUNYAMPIRWA, alias Nouveau Riche; He is a Tutsi refugee and a native of Cyangugu (Rwanda). His elder brother, Modeste GASIGWA, General Treasurer for the Nyundo Diocese (Gisenyi-Rwanda) was chased out of Rambura in 1973. He took refuge in Zaïre then. He returned home and was appointed as the curate for Biruyi Parish by his Order. It was on the eve of the Inkotanyi attack that the priest left for exile on the pretext of attending the ordination of a Belgian Deacon. That Inkotanyi priest would subsequently go to Goma where he is working for his Tutsi brothers under the wing of Bishop NGABU. This “Nouveau Riche” was an erstwhile watch repairer. It is when his other brother was appointed in the UNHCR in Geneva that MUNYAMPIRWA got appointed Representative of the UNHCR in Eastern Zaïre. In October 1990, during an incursion into neighboring Rwanda by the NRA assailants, MUNYAMPIRWA played an active role in recruiting Tutsis from Burundi, Rwanda (ABAGOGWE) and those residing in North-Kivu and sent them to the training camps in Uganda.
  8. MUSEMINARI; Secretary General of GECAMINES in Shaba. He is a former Rwandan student in the University of Lovanium and a native of Gikongoro, who holds a fraudulently acquired Zaïrean identity card.
  9. Pierre RWANYINDO: Lecturer at Kinshasa University; he is a former student of Notre-Dame Secondary School in Bukavu. He is a Tutsi refugee originally from Cyangugu and enrolled in Lovanium University. After taking a degree in Economics, he defended his Doctorate thesis in Belgium. When he returned to Kinshasa, he sent his manservant to buy him a citizen’s card in the Lembo zone in Kinshasa. He was subsequently appointed member of the Central Committee of the MPR, but due to protests from Kivu nationalists he was unable to take the oath of office.
  10. Dieudonné MAKALA: A Tutsi refugee, native of Gisenyi prefecture (Rwanda). He is the younger brother of Mr. Valens KAJEGUHAKWA; a very prosperous Rwandan businessman, who escaped to Uganda a few days before the Ugandan attack against Rwanda. Valens KAJEGUHAKWA, alias VK to his close Tutsi friends, is actually the brains of the R.P.F. (Rwandan Refugee Force), which is in fact an NRA unit. MAKALA studied at the University of Lumumbashi (Faculty of Sciences) where he obtained a degree in metallurgic engineering. He was later posted to GECAMINES, upon the recommendation of BB. He was arrested in 1985 and convicted of forgery and use of false documents by the Goma Court of First Instance. It was Barrister KARURETWA who got the ruling overturned by the Bukavu Appeals Court through a bribe. MAKALA presently resides in Goma (North-Kivu) where he lives in demonic opulence, under the false pretence that he is the Director of (inexistent) companies.
  11. Callixte KAYITASHONGWE; A Tutsi refugee, and a native of Ruhengeri (Rwanda). He is a former nurse at the Gisenyi Hospital. After taking refuge in Congo, he was appointed a senior staff at SOMINKI (Kalima). He left SOMINKI to settle in Goma where he engaged in all sorts of illegal traffic from GOMA-MOMBASA with funds he is alleged to have acquired from one RWIJUGURO, an associate of Jean Baptiste BAGAZA… (missing text) in the Inkotanyi training camps and taken to the ANI service in Goma, where his father is reputed to have paid a ransom of 600,000 Zaïres.
  12. Francois MUGENZI; Native of Kibungo prefecture (Rwanda). A Tutsi refugee settled in Goma, where he indulges in shady business. After the beginning of the identification exercise, MUGENZI was arrested and held in the 8th precinct of the National Gendarmerie for disseminating tracts against the Government using his blue Pajero. His Tutsi peers secured his release through bribes.
  13. MUNYESHURI; A native of Gikongoro (Rwanda). He is the proprietor of Supermatch Tobacco factories in Goma, after emptying the coffers in Burundi where he was an associate of Gagaza’s Ministers. He took refuge with impunity in the North-Kivu paradise where he must have already acquired identity papers fraudulently. He is a major source of support for NRA elements attacking neighboring Rwanda.
  14. Jacques KIVUYE; a Tutsi refugee from Rwanda and a native of Ruhengeri. Under the MICOMBERO regime, he was Burundian in Burundi. He left Burundi to settle in Goma, undoubtedly to prepare for the aggression against Rwanda. He owns a farm in Masisi.
  15. Emmanuel KANOBANA is a native of Gikongoro (Rwanda). He studied in Belgium as a Tutsi refugee from Rwanda. Upon graduation, he was appointed Marketing Director at BRALIMA in Kisangani in 1973, upon the recommendation of BB. He was later appointed Managing Director in GECAMINES. In Lumumbashi, he misappropriated large sums of money earmarked for boosting that company. He was arrested and sentenced to a term at the Makala Central Prison in Kinshasa.
  16. Emmanuel GAKWAYA is a Tutsi refugee from Butare (Rwanda). After graduating at the Lovanium University, he was appointed Budget Administrator at the University campus (missing text) …upon the recommendation of BB. Today, he is an auditor at the BEG-U and resides in Kinshasa.
  17. Sekwekwe KALINDA: He is a Tutsi refugee from Rwanda and a native of Gahini (Kibungo). He misappropriated a loan granted by the Bank of Zaïre for the citizens of the Kivu region. The funds made it possible for him to launch a new business. He is one of the major supporters of the Inkotanyi in Kivu-north.
  18. Jean KAMANZI: President of the Mwangaza mutual fund, comprising Tutsi refugees in Zaïre and supported by Bishop Faustin NGABO of Goma, Albert NGEZAYO of Hotel des Masques and Merlo DARIO of ACOGENOKI. Ile is a former student in Goma. Yesterday he was a motorcyclist, who used money belonging to fellow Tutsis settled in Kenya and Uganda to build the Kivu Soap Factory in Katindo (Goma). He is a staunch supporter of the Inkotanyi front materially and otherwise.
  19. NUMVANEZA; General Treasurer of the Goma diocese. He is a refugee settled by the UNHCR in Bibwe. He helps the NRA assailants against Rwanda, in the name of the Catholic Church in Goma. He fraudulently acquired a Zaïrean national identity card.

People of Zaïre:

  • Such is the trash that distorts the history of Zaïre and falsified the identity of your nationals in North and south Kivu regions.
  • Such is the underworld that has looted Zaïre and sucked the blood of Zaïreans.
  • Such are the bandits who burn down the houses of peasants and innocent civilians in neighboring Rwanda.
  • It is for the people of Zaïre to draw the relevant conclusions for future reference.